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McGinnity, P. Cross, T. Coughlan, J. Whelan, K. Ferguson, A. Journal of Fish Biology , 68 [DOI] [Details] 'Genetic and ecological effects of salmon aquaculture on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results' Hindar, K. Quinn, T. Stet,mCross, T. Journal of fish biology , 67 s1 [Details] 'Allozyme variation in Atlantic salmon from the British Isles: associations with geography and the environment' Jordan, W. Jordan, W. Crozier, W. Galvin, P. Hurrell, R.
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Martin, S. Moffett, I. Price, D. Youngson, A. Verspoor, E. Fisheries Research , 62 [Details] 'Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon' McGinnity, P. Proceedings of the Royal Society B , [Details] 'Management of salmonid fisheries in the British Isles: towards a practical approach based on population genetics' Youngson, A.
Aquaculture , [Details] 'Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon' McGinnity, P. Studies in Irish Limnology. Canadian journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences , 55 [Details] 'Genetic changes in an Atlantic salmon population resulting from escaped juvenile farm salmon' Clifford, S.
Download Salmonid Fishes: Population Biology, Genetics And Management
Journal of Fish Biology , 52 [Details] 'Genetic impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon on native populations: use of DNA profiling to assess freshwater performance of wild, farmed and hybrid progeny an a natural river environment' McGinnity, P. Aquaculture , [Details] 'The application of molecular markers to the study and conservation of fish populations, with special reference to Salmo' Ferguson, A. Prodohl, P. E, McGinnity, P. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Holmer, K. Black, C. Duarte, N. Marba, and T. Karakassis eds. Aquaculture in the ecosystem.
Oxford: Blackwell. F, Poole, W. Dubkin: Congress of Societas Internationalis Limnologiae. Dublin: Marine Institute. Oxford: Fishing News Books. The un-supervised classification of high resolution digital aerial photography for identification and quantification of stream habitat channel units important to the freshwater production of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Aquaculture Ireland, Ireland. J The deliberate introduction of cultured Atlantic salmon into the wild in support of angling tourism: a risk to biodiversity?
Electronic Conference on Research and Biodiversity. Other [DOI] [Details] Population specific smolt development, migration and maturity schedules in Atlantic salmon in a natural river environment. Gilbey, J.
Marine Institute contract A Ferguson A. Reviews [DOI] [Details] Half a century of genetic interaction between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon: Status of knowledge and unanswered questions. McGinnity ucc. First, it can examine only a specific set of genes within the total genome, those that code for water-soluble enzymes. In addition, this technique cannot detect genetic changes that do not affect the amino acid sequence of a protein subunit.
Thus, silent substitutions within codons or genetic changes in noncoding regions within genes cannot be detected with protein electrophoresis. Finally, this technique usually requires that multiple tissues be taken for analysis and stored in ultra-cold freezers. Thus, fish to be analyzed generally must be sacrificed and the samples must be treated with care and stored under proper refrigeration. Techniques that examine DNA directly using the polymerase chain reaction PCR do not require lethal sampling and can often use old or even ancient specimens that have not been carefully stored; for example, PCR analysis can be done on scale samples that have been stored for years at room temperature Beckenbach These techniques have the advantage over protein electrophoresis of virtually unlimited power and sensitivity to examine all nuclear loci.
There are, however, some disadvantages of DNA techniques relative to protein electrophoresis.
Genetic variation and fitness in salmonids
The first is that DNA techniques are generally more difficult, costly, and time consuming than protein electrophoresis. However, once a specific DNA polymorphism has been detected, it may be possible to screen many individuals rapidly and at low cost Park The second disadvantage is the difficulty of generating comparable data sets in different labs using DNA techniques. A perhaps surprising disadvantage of nDNA polymorphisms is that it is often more difficult to determine the allelic relationships of observed variability and to identify homologous loci in different species than it is with protein electrophoresis.
The analysis of mitochondrial DNA mtDNA has become a well-established and valuable tool for many applications in population biology Avise Nevertheless, there are a number of serious drawbacks for its use in describing the amount of genetic variation within and among natural populations. First, the entire mtDNA genome approximately 17, base pairs in salmonids is inherited as a single genetic locus because of the absence of genetic recombination. Second, an extremely small proportion of the total genetic information in an individual is encoded in mtDNA.
There are approximately 37 genes encoded in the mtDNA molecule of vertebrates, compared to an estimated 50,, genes in the nuclear genome Wallace Thus, in salmonids, which have a duplicated nuclear genome, less than 0. The effective population size for mtDNA is considerably smaller than for a nuclear gene because each individual has only one copy and because of uniparental inheritance Birky et al. The effective population size for a mtDNA gene is equal to the number of females in an ideal population.
Thus, with a sex ratio, there are four times as many nuclear genes as mitochondrial genes. In general, therefore, the effects of genetic drift are much greater for mtDNA than for a nuclear gene in the same population. The expected amount of allele frequency differentiation with a given amount of gene flow is also different for mitochondrial and nuclear genes because of haploidy and uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. We expect relatively more differentiation at mitochondrial genes because of the generally smaller effective number of genes and because male migration will not affect allele frequencies.
With a sex ratio and equal migration rates in males and females, we expect four times as much allele frequency differentiation G ST at mitochondrial genes as at nuclear genes at equilibrium with the island model of migration Birky et al. This difference is expected to be even greater for species in which migration rates of males are greater than that of females. Ovenden and White have presented a rich data set of genetic variation in mtDNA and protein loci in the Australian fish Galaxias truttaceus.
This is a diadromous species in Tasmania that spawns in estuaries and the larvae spend 3 months at sea before returning to fresh water. There also are landlocked populations of this species that have no marine larval stage. Ovenden and White found a tremendous amount of mtDNA variability in diadromous populations, but almost no mtDNA variation within or between four landlocked populations.
Grant and Leslie have found that many species of vertebrates in South Africa have high amounts of genetic variation at protein loci but almost no variation in mtDNA. They argue that the patterns of gene diversity in mtDNA are likely to be misleading in species in which extinction and recolonization are important. It is likely that extinction and recolonization have played an important historical role in salmonid populations because of repeated Pleistocene glaciation events.
For example, Ferguson et al. However, a single mtDNA genotype was found in all four rivers, except one in which nearly half of the fish had a second mtDNA genotype. The relative paucity of variation in mtDNA in these fish was attributed to historical bottlenecks associated with colonization of these rivers following glaciation.
A recent paper by Karl and Avise has provided an important challenge to the utility of allozyme markers for describing historical patterns and amounts of gene flow between populations. In contrast, allozyme studies had not detected these genetic differences among these populations. Karl and Avise concluded that the pattern observed for the mtDNA and nDNA markers reflected the historical patterns of isolation and gene flow among these populations, while this pattern is obscured in the allozymes because of "balancing selection" at the allozyme loci in this species.
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