Advances in computers vol. 93

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Tan and J. On Evolutionary Computation, vol. Shirazi, A. Walters and P. Jayasanthi Ranjith and Dr. Monica N. Abstract: Agriculture is the mainstay of most third world economies and occupies a pivotal position in the development of these countries. Despite the importance of agriculture, improvements in this sector have been uneven and, on the whole, disappointing. In any farming system, it is important to recognize the various roles of women. Many women experience a life that is a complex web of multi roles and multi-tasks which requires the average woman to conduct different things in a bid to fulfil her family needs.

Women in rural communities are extensively involved in arduous farm operations and agricultural activities, from planting to harvesting and other post harvesting operations. These women have been using and managing natural resources, collecting food etc for their livelihood. In Nigeria, women provide 60 — 80 percent of labour in agriculture through production, processing and marketing of food.

They assist on family farms and are farmers in their own right. So the Nigerian women are in an important position to contribute to food supply. This sector faces major challenges for enhancing production in a situation of dwindling natural resources necessary for production. ICT plays an impotant role in addressing these challenges. The paper analyzes the problems facing women in the agricultural sector-and suggests ways to solve these problems. Furthermore the paper surveys the information needs of rural women and how ICT can be used to meet their information needs.

Keywords: Agriculture, information and communication technology, women. Blumberg, R. African women in agriculture: farmers, students, extension agents, chiefs. Development Studies Paper. The World Bank Technical paper Dunn, K. The busiest people in the world. Ceres, 27 4 , 4. GrameenPhone , www. Women: the roots of rural development. In Hay and Stichter eds.

African Women south of the sahara, New York:Longmans. Nidhi Tandon Trends and Statistics. United Nations: New York. Abstract: Technology has become the driving force of change in the modern world. It has altered our economic structures and ways we communicate. Information is only one of our needs. Email, satellites can not be sustituted for drugs; neither can they provide clean water. Massive access to the Internet and ICT can accelerate awareness of these needs and will also facilitate development of solutions to tackle these needs effectively by empowering the youth of this country that are our future hopes.

The information highways is leaving the African youth Nigeria not excluded poorer in ICT knowledge, skills and global reach. Thousands of young people in Nigeria leave school with the hope of developing a career and sustainable life that often turns into an illusion. The paper looks at the benefits of youth empowering, takes a review of youth empowerment initiatives in other developing countries and presents an approach of empowering Nigeria youths that are future leaders of tomorrow.

With this we will move from the realm of educational inadequacy to that of unlimited resources. Agu M. An unpublished Ph. Ebonyi State University. Ajialcom-Empowering Youth through Technology. Edalat Abbas Empowering the Youthh of our Homeland. Information Technology and the Internet for Education in Iran. Itir Akdogan Technology empowers youth, youth will empower Turkey. Common Ground News Service www. Mohamed Bahaj, Jamal Bakkas. This method allows us to preserve semantic of some feature's UML diagram such as inheritance, encapsulation, types of associations composition, aggregation, or simple association , constraints of integrity, class identifier Antoniou, F.

McGuinness, F. Jensen, T. Fong, F. Pang, C. DEXA Workshop, pp Seidenberg, A. IW3C ACM, 7. Arnoux, T. Gasevic, D. Djuric, V. Devedzic, V. Balogh, L. Nyulas, M. Corcho, A. Oguike, O. Abstract: In a heterogeneous parallel computer system, the computational power of each of the processors differs from one another. Furthermore, with distributed memory, the capacity of the memory, which is distributed to each of the processors, differs from one another. Using queuing system to describe a distributed memory heterogeneous parallel computer system, each of the heterogeneous processors will have its own heterogeneous queue.

The variation of waiting time of heterogeneous parallel computer system with distributed memory needs to be modeled because it will help designers of parallel computer system to determine the extent of variation of the waiting time. It will also help users to know when to realize minimum variation of the waiting time. This paper models the variation of the waiting time of distributed memory heterogeneous parallel computer system using recursive models.

It also uses the statistical method of Z-Transform to verify and validate the recursive model. Keywords: distributed memory, heterogeneous parallel computer, parallel computer system, queuing network, recursive models, variation, waiting time, Z-Transform. Henry H. Liu and Pat V. International Conference of Computer Measurement Group, Catalina M.

Acta Paediatrica: Vol 93, No s

Cathy H. Xia, Zhen Liu. International Conference of Computer Measurement Group, 7. Hamdy A. Arjan J. Arranchenkov, K. L Priority queueing with finite buffer size and randomized push-out; mechanism. Abunday, B.

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Acta Cybern. Trivedi K. Per Brinch Hansen. Operating System Principles. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, Sztrika and T. Robert V. Hogg and Allen T. Post, H. Bernard P. Zeigler et al; Theory of Modelling and Simulation; Elsevier; C, Karthikeyan. V, Jerin Sajeev. R, Merlin Moses. Abstract: Peer-to-peer VoIP calls are popular due to their low cost and convenience.

When these calls are encrypted and anonymized the network becomes a secured one. Tracing of the anonymous VoIP call users are important and the traced information about them should be sent to the server to know how long the users are in communication. The key challenge in tracking encrypted VoIP calls across anonymous communication system is to identify the correlation between the VoIP flows of the caller and the callee.

Since all the traffic of the peer-to-peer VoIP calls are encrypted, the best way to track anonymous VoIP calls across the internet is using the Active timing based correlation.

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It is done by embedding a unique watermark into the inter-packet timing domain. The analysis shows that it only takes several milliseconds time adjustment to make normal VoIP flows highly unique and the embedded delay value could be preserved across the low latency anonymizing network. In this proposal, tracking of anonymous VoIP calls across internet was successfully achieved by using active time based correlation method and the results demonstrate that tracing of anonymous peer-to-peer VoIP calls on the internet is feasible and low latency anonymizing networks are susceptible to timing attacks.

Keywords: It is done by embedding a unique watermark into the inter-packet timing domain. Thamizharasi and M. Emanuel P. Freire, Artur Ziviani, and Ronaldo M. Overlier, L. Kohno, A. Broido and K. Murdoch and G. Chen, and S. Baset and H. Li, M. Sung, J. Xu and L. Danezis, R. Dingledine, and N. Freedman and R. ACM, November Wang and D.

ACM, October Marc Rennhard and Bernhard Plattner. Jabbari Ghadi, A. Abstract: In a restructured power market, traditional scheduling of generating units needs modification. The classical unit commitment problem aims at minimizing the operation costs by satisfying the forecasted electricity load. A Unit Commitment algorithm with capability of profit maximization plays a significant role in successful development bidding strategies of a competitive generator.

In such an environment, power price turns into an important factor in decision process. In fact, the presented approach assists GENCOs to make a decision, how to schedule generators in order to gain the maximum profit by selling adequate amounts of power in power market. The effectiveness of the proposed method to solve generation scheduling optimization problem in a day-ahead deregulated electricity market is validated on 10 generating unit systems available in the literature.

Comparison of results obtained from simulation verifies the ability of proposed method. Virmani, C. Adrian, K. Imhof, and S. Power Syst. Cohen and M. PAS, pp. Muckstadt and R. Zhuang and F. Ting, M. Rao and C. Kazarlis, A. Bakirtzis, and V. Moghimi Hadji and B. Shahidehpour and M. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, Shahidehpour, H. Yamin, and Z. New York: Wiley, Ongsakul and N. Richter, Jr and G. Christopher Columbus, K. Chandrasekaran and Sishaj P. Christopher Columbus and Sishaj P.

Victoire and A. IEE Conf. Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Jul. Chandram, N. Subrahmanyam and M. Yamin and S. Attaviriyanupap, H. Kita, E. Tanaka, and J. Janet Nahomi and V. Damousis, A. Bakirtzis, and P. Gargari and C. IEEE Congr. Evolutionary Computation, Sep. Khorani, F.

Razavi, and V. Intelligent Transportation Syst. Khabbazi, E. Atashpaz-Gargari, and C. Lourthu Hepziba Mercy. M, Balamurugan. K, Vijayaraj. Wireless sensor network requires robust and energy efficient communication protocols to minimize the energy consumption as much as possible. However, the lifetime of sensor network reduces due to the adverse impacts caused by radio irregularity and fading in multi-hop WSN. The scheme extends High Energy First HEF clustering algorithm and enables multi-hop transmissions among the clusters by incorporating the selection of cooperative sending and receiving nodes.

The work proposed focuses to develop any node to act as cluster head CH instead of affected CH because we need to get a data from CH continuously. To reduce energy consumption, proposed scheme extends with the help of S-MAC layer to get the efficient energy saving. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and reliability. Simulation results show that tremendous energy savings can be achieved by adopting hard network lifetime scheme among the clusters. Many routing protocols are developed, but among those protocols cluster based routing protocols are energy efficient, scalable and prolong the network lifetime.

The network simulator 2 NS2 is used to verify the proposed network lifetime predictability model, and the results show that the derived bounds of the predictability provide accurate estimations of the energy saving and network lifetime. Keywords: cluster head selection, network lifetime, schedulability, timing constraints, wireless sensor networks, AODV.

Victor, A. Khader, C. Rao and A. Stankovic and K. Ramamrithan, Eds. Cheng, A. Stoyenko, T. Marlowe, and S. Liu and J. Cristescu and M. He, J.

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Annual Allerton Conf. Qin and R. Sirivianos, D. Westhoff, F. Armknecht, and J. He, P. Vicaire, T. Yan, L. Luo, L. Gu, G. Zhou, R. Stoleru, Q.

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Cao, J. Stankovic, and T. Lichtenegger, G. Calabresi, and A. Nord and B. Perkins, E. Royer, and S. Kaur and J. Ramesh1 and Dr. Somasundaram2 DOI: Liu, P. Wan, C. Yi, X. Jia, S. Makki, and P. Madan, C. Shuguang, S. Lall, and A. Tse, and J. Crosby, N. Pissinou, and J. Wang, C. Wang, and C. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H.

Sivavakeesar and G. Younis and S. Ugwuishiwu B. ICT can play both positive and negative roles in sustainable environment. It analyses the environmental impacts of ICTs in different stages of the life cycle and also as an enabling technology for mitigation of environmental impacts across all economic sectors.

Siyuan Jiang

Direct environmental impacts were noted to be considerable in areas such as energy use, materials throughput and end-of-life treatment. ICT usage could also generate new activities and wastes with grave implications on efficient environmental resource management. The contribution of ICTs to systemic changes to achieve more sustainable environment was discussed.

It was concluded that it is important that the environmental impacts of ICT products and operations be minimized through improved research and development, implementation of innovative ICT systems and government ICT policies.


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Choi, B. Lee, S, Hur,S. Eugster, M. Fuhr, J. Broadband services: economic and environmental benefits. The American Consumer Institute. Goleniewski, L. Telecommunications essentials. The complete global source. Second Edition. Edited by K. Addison Wesley. Hilty, L. ICTs and environmental sustainability. Document No. Idowu, S. ITU Measuring ICT for social and economic development. Trends in telecommunication reform.

OECD Reed, B. Geographic data for environmental modeling and assessment. In Skidmore, A. Taylor and Francis. Sands P. Principles of International Environmental Law 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. Steinweg, T. Trotter, C. Spatial information for ecosystem classification, analysis, and forecasting. In Halls, P. Innovation in GIS 8. London and New York. Williams, E. Environmental Impacts in the Production of Personal Computers. In Computers and the Environment. Understanding and managing their impacts, R. Kuehr and E. Williams eds. World Econ.

Forum Report Yi, L. A review of research on the environmental impact of e-Business and ICT. Abstract: The introduction of electrospun TiO 2 nanofibers has improved the performance of inverted poly 3- hexylthiophene P3HT and 6, 6 - phenyl-C 61 - butyric acid methyl ester PCBM solar cells by providing efficient charge generation and collection through double heterojunction.

The resulting devices have reached to maximum power conversion efficiency PCE of 4. Keywords: Heterojunction, inverted, nanofibers, organic References: 1. Carsten, D. Vladimir, "Polymer—fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells", Reports on Progress in Physics, , 73, Hoth, S. Choulis, P. Schilinsky, C. Krebs, M. Norrman, O. Hagemann, J. Alstrup, T. Nielsen, J. Fyenbo, K. Larsen, J. Kristensen, "A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing--First public demonstration", Sol.

Energy Mater. Cells, , 93, Girotto, B. Rand, J. Genoe, P. Heremans, "Exploring spray coating as a deposition technique for the fabrication of solution-processed solar cells", Sol. Dennler, M. Scharber, C. Li, G. Lu, X. Yang, "Improving performance of polymer photovoltaic devices using an annealing-free approach via construction of ordered aggregates in solution", J.

Brabec, J. Helgesen, M. Kim, K. Lee, N. Coates, D.

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Moses, T. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. Espinosa, M. Krebs, H. Spanggard, T. Biancardo, J. Alstrup, "Large area plastic solar cell modules", Materials Science and Engineering: B, , , White, D. Olson, S. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, D. Ginley, "Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer", Appl. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk, P. Schilinsky, K. Coakley, S. Choulis, C. Brabec, "Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact", Appl.

Kim, S. Kim, H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. Su, C. Kuo, M. Yuan, U. Jeng, C. Su, K. Siddiki, J. Li, D. Galipeau, Q. Qiao, "A review of polymer multijunction solar cells", Energy Environ. Park, A. Carter, L. Mier, C. Kao, S. Lewis, R. Nandyala, Y. Min, A. Epstein, "Organic photovoltaic cells with nano-fabric heterojunction structure", Appl. Zhou, M. Eck, C. Men, F. Rauscher, P. Niyamakom, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, M. Cells, , 95, Halls, R. Brabec, A. Cravino, D. Meissner, N.

Sariciftci, T. Fromherz, M.

Rispens, L. Sanchez, J. Lin, M. Zhang, S. Liu, T. Chiu, J. Silvestri, A. Glenis, G. Horowitz, G. Tourillon, F. Garnier, "Electrochemically grown polythiophene and poly 3-methylthiophene organic photovoltaic cells", Thin Solid Films, , , Fang, S. Chen, M. Chu, "Effect of side-chain length on rectification and photovoltaic characteristics of poly 3-alkylthiophene Schottky barriers", Synth. Marks, J. Halls, D. Bradley, R.

Friend, A. Holmes, "The photovoltaic response in poly p-phenylene vinylene thin-film devices", J. Matter, , 6, Tang, "Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell", Appl. Vacar, E. Maniloff, D. McBranch, A. B, , 56, Halls, C. Walsh, N. Greenham, E. Marseglia, R. Friend, S. Moratti, A. Holmes, "Efficient photodiodes from interpenetrating polymer networks", Nature, , , Yu, J. Gao, J. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. Shaheen, R. Radspinner, N. Peyghambarian, G. Jabbour, "Fabrication of bulk heterojunction plastic solar cells by screen printing", Appl.

Zheng, J. Peumans, S. Singh, B. Pandit, T. Basel, S. Laird, Z. B, , 85, Al-Ibrahim, H. Roth, U. Zhokhavets, G. Gobsch, S. Cells, , 85, Mayer, S. Scully, B. Hardin, M. Rowell, M. McGehee, "Polymer-based solar cells", Materials Today, , 10, Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, Y. Brabec, N. Sariciftci, J. Hummelen, "Plastic Solar Cells", Adv. Shaheen, C. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, J. Hummelen, "2. Wynands, L. Wilde, M. Hein, S.

Elschner, K. Eichhorn, K. Leo, M. Bao, A. Dodabalapur, A. Hayakawa, O. Yoshikawa, T. Fujieda, K. Uehara, S. Zhao, P. Liu, X. Sun, S. Ke, A. Kyaw, "An inverted organic solar cell with an ultrathin Ca electron-transporting layer and MoO[sub 3] hole-transporting layer", Appl. Wang, W. Weng, M. Tsai, M. Lee, S. Horng, T. Perng, C. Kei, C. Yu, H. Meng, "Highly efficient flexible inverted organic solar cells using atomic layer deposited ZnO as electron selective layer", Journal of Materials Chemistry, , 20, Norrman, M.

Madsen, S. Gevorgyan, F. Hau, H. Yip, A. Kyaw, X. Sun, C. Jiang, G. Lo, D. Zhao, D. Kwong, "An inverted organic solar cell employing a sol-gel derived ZnO electron selective layer and thermal evaporated MoO[sub 3] hole selective layer", Appl. Gilot, I. Barbu, M. Wienk, R.

Volume Eight

He supervised more than M. He has received more than 20 academic awards and is a member of the editorial boards of over 20 international journals and conferences. He completed his Ph. He shares 6 international patents, including 4 U. As well as editing more than 25 book volumes, Nabendu has authored 6 text- and research books and has published over Scopus indexed research papers in journals and at international conferences.

His areas of research interest include distributed systems, image processing and software engineering. Chaki also served as a Researcher in the Ph. He is a visiting faculty member for numerous Universities in India and abroad. In addition to serving on the editorial board for several international journals, he has also been on the committees of over 50 international conferences.

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