Best Practice in Motivation and Management in the Classroom (3rd Edition)

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Finally, individuals decide between alternative behaviors Wagner and Hollenburg, Employees who lack motivation in the work places are a risk factor when it comes to executing day to day operations of the business. Some employees are engaged in company equipment and tools on a daily basis, some of which need maximum attention and safety when using. So it is the responsibility of the organization to have a well-balanced workforce of employees and their emotions as far as work issues are concerned.

Regarding this definition, non-attendance such as vacation leave, military service, block release leave and suspension do not qualify as absenteeism and should be completely excluded from the ensuing absenteeism analysis process. Levy , p. It is the desire of organization to keep their staff for longer periods of time. Organisations spend a lot of money and time in training their employees. High staff turnover due to unhappy employees will cost the organization of all the spent resources. Strategic leadership is the critical point in achieving companies objectives.

Dissatisfaction: The morale of the entire office can be brought down when one employee lacks motivation. Employees who are not satisfied with their job might resort to quitting; therefore, this scenario should be avoided. The employees are to perform to their abilities in order to satisfy their customers and to retain them all the time. Leadership is very vital because according to Stankiewicz-Mroz , change in human resources will be expected, as well as re-evaluating the paradigms. A managerial skill will be needed to pull people together for the reputation of the company.

Employees who are not happy with the organization will manifest their dissatisfaction to the outside world. Customers are bound to experience unwelcoming acts of aggression and bitterness emanating from unhappy employees. Poor customer service will be the order of the day among employees which will end up tarnishing the name of the business. Employees who are not entirely happy at work can have health problems including stress.

Stress related illnesses will jeopardize wellness efforts in the work place of keeping healthy employees. Stressed and de-motivated employees may cause accidents at work when using machineries and other dangerous tools.


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All levels in the organization are be responsible for the safety of risks in the company and help with avoidance of such risks Tasmin and Salehudin, Employees who are highly motivated will always put their best efforts in their work and help the company to be productive. Production at work will bear more output in which it will be able to generate much needed income. This then will extend to difficulties in acquisitions.

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Again according to Peter and Daniel , Political influence, outside the context of deficit accommodation, can also provide accommodation for specific fiscal policy initiatives. Motivation can emanate from with an employee with a passion and desire to work and produce results. This kind of motivation is self-driven by an employee in order to elevate his feelings to accomplish. As is a normal case, employees work in exchange for compensation for their hard labour but how far they go depends on how motivated they are. According to Perry and Hondeghem , the individuals desire to perform, and provide services to customers, with the mandate to do good is enough factor to motivate.

Performance at work is related to the employees pay of which the employee may not have control of that reward as it is external. Apart from rewards, there are other factors that are external such as promotion at work, security of the job, salary increment that may give meaning to employees motivation. Therefore, for organizations to continue existing and retaining its workforce, they must keep on working on strategies that can help in motivating its employees.

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Motivated employees have a sense of belonging and loyalty to the organization and always work hard to be associated with the results of their labour. Motivation have effect on employees as individuals to achieve and as well as ability to be innovative because they believe in themselves which will benefit the organization to succeed Yang Jie, A motivated worker is easy to be retained hence saving the organization finances of replacing workers, also it encourages workers to always achieve more on daily productions as they are having a sense of security of their work.

Management will have time to attend to other important issues because their motivated workforce can build teams that can help with the supervision and production of work. Conclusion Motivation is very much needed for employees in an organisation to be productive, and management or leadership style has an important role to play. Motivation is not always based on financial rewards, but non-financial rewards methods can also be used to derive the best out of employees. However, there is no single reliable theory to be used, a mixture of them can be utilized. In terms of empowering workforce, employees should be encouraged and given a platform to voice out their concerns on how they can be motivated.

In some organizations, workers perform their duties in an assembly whereby if a certain section of employees is affected it will affect the whole plant. Employees perform their duties diligently if they are inspired and motivated as the results will always be positive with efficient production. Organizations which are results oriented will go all the way to motivate their employees for them to reach their goals.

A further qualitative research on motivation strategies and theories is recommended. Saudi Arabian hospitals, especially those in the Southern Region, can make use of retention strategies…. This study aims to determine the effect of MARS model consists of motivation, ability, role…. The critical importance of role stressors which include role ambiguity and role stressors is considered….

September 18, August 31, September 5, August 27, March 31, August 1, Harvard Badubi, R. APA Badubi, R. Vancouver Badubi RM. Chicago Badubi, Reuben M.. Suggested Articles. Extrinsic Intrinsic job satisfaction Motivation. MI engages clients, elicits change talk and evokes patient motivation to make positive changes. For example, change talk can be elicited by asking the patient questions such as: "How might you like things to be different? Unlike clinical interventions and treatment, MI is the technique where the interviewer clinician assists the interviewee patient in changing a behavior by expressing their acceptance of the interviewee without judgement.

Knowledge alone is usually not sufficient to motivate change within a client, and challenges in maintaining change should be thought of as the rule, not the exception. The incorporation of MI can help patients resolve their uncertainties and hesitancies that may stop them from their inherent want of change in relation to a certain behavior or habit.


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  4. At the same time, it can be seen that MI ensures that the participants are viewed more as team members to solve a problem rather than a clinician and patient. Hence, this technique can be attributed to a collaboration that respects sense of self and autonomy. To be more successful at motivational interviewing, a clinician must have a strong sense of "purpose, clear strategies and skills for such purposes".

    Additionally, Clinicians need to have well-rounded and established interaction skills which include; asking open ended questions, reflective listening, affirming and reiterating statements back to the patient. In this way, it can improve their self-confidence for change. Furthermore, at the same time the clinician needs to keep in mind the following five principles when practicing MI. This means to listen and express empathy to patients through the use of reflective listening.

    This means to assist patients in developing discrepancies between the current self and what they want to be like in the future after a change has taken place.

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    The main goal of this principle is to increase the patient's awareness that there are consequences to their current behaviors. It is important that the patient be the one making the arguments for change and realize their discrepancies themselves. An effective way to do this is for the clinician to participate in active reflective listening and repacking what the patient has told them and delivering it back to them. During the course of MI the clinician may be inclined to argue with a patient, especially when they are ambivalent about their change and this is especially true when " resistance " is met from the patient.

    When patients become a little defensive and argumentative, it usually is a sign to change the plan of attack. The biggest progress made towards behavior change is when the patient makes their own arguments instead of the clinician presenting it to them. Strong self-efficacy can be a significant predictor of success in behavior change. They may have tried multiple times on their own to create a change in their behavior e.

    By reflecting on what the patient had told them, the clinician can accentuate the patient's strengths and what they have been successful in e. By highlighting and suggesting to the patient areas in which they have been successful, this can be incorporated into future attempts and can improve their confidence and efficacy to believe that they are capable of change.

    While there are as many differences in technique, the underlying spirit of the method remains the same and can be characterized in a few key points: [6]. Ultimately, practitioners must recognize that motivational interviewing involves collaboration not confrontation, evocation not education, autonomy rather than authority, and exploration instead of explanation. There are four steps used in motivational interviewing. These help to build trust and connection between the patient and the clinician, focus on areas that may need to be changed and find out the reasons the patient may have for changing or holding onto a behavior.

    This helps the clinician to support and assist the patient in their decision to change their behavior and plan steps to reach this behavioral change. These steps do not always happen in this order. In this step, the clinician gets to know the patient and understands what is going on in the patient's life.


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    The patient needs to feel comfortable, listened to and fully understood from their own point of view. This helps to build trust with the patient and builds a relationship where they will work together to achieve a shared goal. This allows the patient to open up about their reasons for change, hopes, expectations as well as the barriers and fears that are stopping the patient from changing. This creates an environment that is comfortable for the patient to talk about change. Overall, the patient is more likely to come back to follow up appointments, follow an agreed plan and get the benefit of the treatment.

    This is where the clinician helps the patient find and focus on an area that is important to them, where they are unsure or are struggling to make a change. The clinician needs to ask questions to understand the reasons if and why the patient would be motivated to change and choose a goal to reach together. There are three styles of focusing; directing, where the clinician can direct the patient towards a particular area for change; following, where the clinician let the patient decide the goal and be led by the patient's priorities, and; guiding, where the clinician leads the patient to uncover an area of importance.

    In this step the clinician asks questions to get the patient to open up about their reasons for change. This step is also known as the "WHY? Usually, there is one reason that is stronger than the others to motivate the patient to change their behavior. The clinician should support and encourage the patient when they talk about ways and strategies to change, as the patient is more likely to follow a plan they set for themselves. This comes across as they are not working together and causes the patient to resist change even more.

    If the clinician focuses more on their own reasons they believe the patient should change this would not come across as genuine to the patient and this would reduce the bond they made in the engaging process. In this step the clinician helps the patient in planning how to change their behavior and encourages their commitment to change. This step is also known as the "HOW? They can help to strengthen the patient's commitment to changing, by supporting and encouraging when the patient uses "commitment talk" or words that show their commitment to change.

    In this step the clinician can listen and recognize areas that may need more work to get to the core motivation to change or help the patient to overcome uneasiness that is still blocking their behavioral change. This helps to set benchmarks and measure how their behavior has changed towards their new goal. Motivational enhancement therapy [20] is a time-limited four-session adaptation used in Project MATCH , a US-government-funded study of treatment for alcohol problems and the Drinkers' Check-up, which provides normative-based feedback and explores client motivation to change in light of the feedback.

    Motivational interviewing is supported by over randomized controlled trials [6] [ additional citation s needed ] across a range of target populations and behaviors including substance abuse, health-promotion behaviours, medical adherence, and mental health issues. MI groups are highly interactive, focused on positive change, and harness group processes for evoking and supporting positive change.

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    They are delivered in four phases: [22]. Behaviour change counselling BCC is an adaptation of MI which focuses on promoting behavior change in a healthcare setting using brief consultations. BCC's main goal is to understand the patient's point of view, how they're feeling and their idea of change. It was created with a "more modest goal in mind", [23] as it simply aims to "help the person talk through the why and how of change" [23] and encourage behavior change.

    It focuses on patient-centered care and is based on several overlapping principles of MI, such as respect for patient choice, asking open-ended questions, empathetic listening and summarizing. Based on a study conducted by Vallis, the results suggest that BCCS is a potentially useful tool in assessing BCC and aid to training practitioners as well as assessing training outcomes. The Behaviour Change Counselling Index BECCI is a BCC tool that assesses general practitioner behavior and incites behavior change through talking about change, encouraging the patient to think about change and respecting the patient's choices in regards to behavior change.

    Used primarily for the use of learning practitioners in a simulated environment to practice and learn the skills of BCC. It "provides valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention". However, as BECCI has only been used in a simulated clinical environment, more study is required to assess its reliability in a real patient environment. Furthermore, it focuses heavily on practitioner behavior rather than patient behavior. Therefore, BECCI may be useful for trainers to assess the reliability and effectiveness of BCC skills but further research and use is required, especially in a real consultation environment.

    A review of multiple studies shows the potential effectiveness of the use of technology in delivering motivational interviewing consultations to encourage behavior change. However, some limitations include: the lack of empathy that may be expressed through the use of technology and the lack of face-to-face interaction may either produce a positive or negative effect on the patient.

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    Further studies are required to determine whether face-to-face consultations to deliver MI is more effective in comparison to those delivered via technology. Patients with an underlying mental illness present one such limitation to motivational interviewing. In these instances, the use of motivational interviewing as a technique to treat outward-facing symptoms, such as not brushing teeth, may be ineffective where the root cause of the problem stems from the mental illness. When working with these patients, it is important to recognize that only so much can be done at certain levels.

    The treating therapists should, therefore, ensure the patient is referred to the correct medical professional to treat the cause of the behavior, and not simply one of the symptoms. Patients in the pre-contemplation stage of the stages of change present a further limitation to the model. If the patient is in this stage, they will not consider they have a problem and therefore are unlikely to be receptive to motivational interviewing techniques. It is important that motivational interviewers are well trained in the approach to be taken when handling these patients.

    Well intended messages can have the opposite effect of pushing the patient away or causing them to actively rebel. In these instances discussing how the issue may be affecting the patient must be handled very delicately and introduced carefully. Suggesting less harmful ways of dealing with the client's issue and helping them recognize danger signs may be a better approach to plant the seed aiding their progression to the contemplation stage.

    Professionals attempting to encourage people to make a behavioral change often underestimate the effect of motivation. Simply advising clients how detrimental their current behavior is and providing advice on how to change their behavior will not work if the client lacks motivation. Many people have full knowledge of how dangerous smoking is yet they continue the practice. Research has shown that a client's motivation to alter behavior is largely influenced by the way the therapist relates to them.

    Clients who don't like or trust their health care professionals are likely to become extremely resistant to change. In order to prevent this, the therapist must take time to foster an environment of trust. Even when the therapist can clearly identify the issues at hand it is important to have the patient feels the session is collaborative and that they are not being lectured to. Confrontational approaches by well-meaning therapists will inhibit the process. Time limits placed on therapists during consultations also have the potential to impact significantly on the quality of motivational interviewing.

    Appointments may be limited to a brief or single visit with a patient; for example, a client may attend the dentist with a toothache due to a cavity. The oral health practitioner or dentist may be able to broach the subject of a behavior change, such as flossing or diet modification but the session duration may not be sufficient when coupled with other responsibilities the health practitioner has to the health and wellbeing of the patient. For many clients, changing habits may involve reinforcement and encouragement which is not possible in a single visit.

    Some patients, once treated, may not return for a number of years or may even change practitioners or practices, meaning the motivational interview is unlikely to have sufficient effect. While psychologists, mental health counselors, and social workers are generally well trained and practiced in delivering motivational interviewing, other health-care professionals are generally provided with only a few hours of basic training. Although perhaps able to apply the underpinning principles of motivational interviewing, these professionals generally lack the training and applied skills to truly master the art of dealing with the patient's resistant statements in a collaborative manner.

    It is important that therapists know their own limitations and are prepared to refer clients to other professionals when required.

    Creating a Motivating Classroom Environment

    Although studies are somewhat limited, it appears that delivering motivational interviewing, in a group may be less effective than when delivered one-on-one. Motivational interviewing was initially developed for the treatment of substance abuse, [2] but MI is continuously being applied across health fields and beyond that. The following fields have used the technique of MI. Brief intervention and MI are both techniques used to empower behavioral change within individuals.

    Behavioral interventions "generally refer to opportunistic interventions by non-specialists e. GPs offered to patients who may be attending for some unrelated condition". Motivational interviewing has recently been incorporated into managing a classroom. Due to the nature of MI where it elicits and evokes behavioral change within an individual it has shown to be effective in a classroom especially when provoking behaviour change within an individual.

    Motivational interviewing has been implemented in coaching, specifically health-based coaching to aid in a better lifestyle for individuals. A study titled "Motivational interviewing-based health coaching as a chronic care intervention" [35] was conducted to evaluate if MI had an impact on individuals health who were assessed as chronically ill.

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    The study's results showed that the group that MI was applied to had "improved their self-efficacy, patient activation, lifestyle change and perceived health status". Initially motivational interviewing was implemented and formulated to elicit behavioral change in individuals suffering from substance abuse. One of these uses include of stabilizing the surrounding environment of an individual. This is completed by allowing the individual to evoke behavioral change within themselves and elicit motivation to change certain habits, for example substance abuse.



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