Quarks, Leptons, and Beyond

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Can we conclude it is due to new physics? Unfortunately not.

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Information such as branching fractions and angular observables are affected by non-perturbative QCD effects. This contribution is very hard to calculate and will most likely require controlling in the data directly. If LU were indeed violated, then one would expect to see differences between the angular distributions of muons and electrons as well as the decay rates. It is possible that the anomalies seen in tree-level and FCNC decays are related. The tree-level decays are sensitive to new physics at the TeV scale, whereas the FCNC decays are sensitive to scales of the order 10 TeV on account of the SM suppression of loop-level decays.

This can be done by either forbidding FCNC processes at tree level, like in the SM, or by having a hierarchical flavour structure where the coupling to third-generation leptons is enhanced with respect to muons. Amongst several speculations, the most promising model in this regard introduces the well known concept of leptoquarks, which are particles that carry both lepton and quark quantum numbers figure 4. The mass scale for such a leptoquark could be around 1 TeV, which is clearly very interesting for direct searches at the LHC.

The theoretical options open up if one would like to explain only one set of anomalies. Overall, there are many possible models proposed that can explain one or both of these anomalies, and differentiating between them would become an exciting challenge if these were to be confirmed. In any case, the amount of data analysed for the measurements described here corresponds to just one-third of what will be available by the end of at LHCb. The two experiments are designed for the study of heavy-flavour physics, and their complementary characteristics will allow researchers to perform ultra-precise measurements of decays of b-quark hadrons.

Hence, the prospects for continuing to test lepton universality in the next decade and beyond are excellent. Type to search. Sign in Register. Enter e-mail address Show Enter password Remember me. Enter e-mail address This e-mail address will be used to create your account. Reset your password. Please enter the e-mail address you used to register to reset your password Enter e-mail address.

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The Standard Model and beyond

As a string moves through space it sweeps out something called a world sheet. String theory predicts 1- to branes a 1- brane being a string and a brane being a dimensional object that prevent tears in the "fabric" of space using the uncertainty principle e. String theory proposes that our universe is merely a 4-brane, inside which exist the 3 space dimensions and the 1 time dimension that we observe.

Some predictions of the string theory include existence of extremely massive counterparts of ordinary particles due to vibrational excitations of the fundamental string and existence of a massless spin-2 particle behaving like the graviton. Technicolor theories try to modify the Standard Model in a minimal way by introducing a new QCD-like interaction. This means one adds a new theory of so-called Techniquarks, interacting via so called Technigluons.

The main idea is that the Higgs-Boson is not an elementary particle but a bound state of these objects. According to preon theory there are one or more orders of particles more fundamental than those or most of those found in the Standard Model. The most fundamental of these are normally called preons, which is derived from "pre-quarks".

In essence, preon theory tries to do for the Standard Model what the Standard Model did for the particle zoo that came before it. Most models assume that almost everything in the Standard Model can be explained in terms of three to half a dozen more fundamental particles and the rules that govern their interactions. Interest in preons has waned since the simplest models were experimentally ruled out in the s. Accelerons are the hypothetical subatomic particles that integrally link the newfound mass of the neutrino to the dark energy conjectured to be accelerating the expansion of the universe.

In theory, neutrinos are influenced by a new force resulting from their interactions with accelerons. Dark energy results as the universe tries to pull neutrinos apart. The most important address about the current experimental and theoretical knowledge about elementary particle physics is the Particle Data Group , where different international institutions collect all experimental data and give short reviews over the contemporary theoretical understanding.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Quantum particle having no known substructure. For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. Main article: Standard Model. See also: Physics beyond the Standard Model. Main article: Cosmic abundance of elements. Main article: Fermion. Main article: Antimatter. Main article: Quark. Main article: Boson.

Main article: Gluon.

Main articles: W and Z bosons and Photon. Main article: Higgs boson. Main article: Graviton. Main article: Grand Unified Theory. Main article: Supersymmetry. Main article: String theory. Main article: Technicolor physics. Main article: Preon. Physics portal. American Journal of Physics. Bibcode : AmJPh.. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Bibcode : sapp. Scientific American.

What are Quarks? - Physics - The Fuse School

Discovery News. The Particle Adventure. Berkeley Lab. National Academies Press. Bibcode : rhns.

Elementary particle - Wikipedia

Tanabashi et al. Particle Data Group , Phys. D 98, The Guardian. Physics Letters B.

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